6000-1800 BC

1800-1350 BC
1350-950 BC
20 BC-100 AD
100-1500 AD
Genesis, 6000-1800 BC

Archaeological Time Periods
Neolithic Age
Chalcolithic (copper and stone) - 4500-3300 BC
Early Bronze Age (bronze) - 3300-2000 BC
Middle Bronze Age - 2000-1550 (Abraham to Moses)

The Pharaohs of Egypt    
Khety II 2115-2070 BC Abraham came to Egypt about 2091 BC (Gen. 12:10-20)
Amenemhat II 1922-1878 BC Likely time Joseph entered the service of Amnemhat II is 1885 BC (Gen 41:41)
Sesostris II 1880-1874 BC Jacob settles in Egypt (Gen. 47:9)
Sesostris III 1874-1855 BC Joseph is likely Prime Minister and Jacob dies (Gen. 41:37-44; Gen 50)
Amenemhat III 1860-1814 BC Joseph still alive in Egypt. Amenemhat III is son of Sesostris III (Senusret III). Goldern Age.
Amenemhet IV 1808-1799 BC Joseph dies during Amenemhet IV's reign around 1806 BC (Gen. 50:25-26)
Neferhotep I 1747-1736 BC Contemporary of Hammurabi of Babylon and Zimri-Lim of Mari.
Could be Pharaoh who did not remember Joseph and began oppression. (Ex. 1:8)
Ahmose 1550-1526 BC Orders the death of the Hebrew boys at their birth (Exodus 1:15-16)

Flood Tablet or Gilgamesh Table from Ashurbanipal Library

Gilgamesh Epic occurred around 2800 BC was written down around 2100 BC and this tablet comes from about 2000 BC

,< Flood Table or Gilgamesh Table (Britism Museum)




The Gilgamesh Epic of the king of Uruk from around 2800 BC were written down around 2100 BC. The plaque to the right shows Gilgamesh standing in victory on the slain head of Humbaba which is recorded in the fifth tablet (OIM). >






< Clay tablet the the account of Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld recorded in cuneiform around 1750-1740 BC. The translation would read:

"The waves at the prow of the boat were devouring
the king (Gilgamesh) like a pack of wolves.
The waves at the stern of the boat were attacking
Enki (Enkidu) like lions."


(Click on all photos to open a larger image.)

Gilgamesh stands victorious on the head of

"Let them summon Aruru, the great one,
she it was created numerous mankind.
Let her create his equal, to be one mighty in strength,
let him vie with him and so let Uruk be rested!"

"This fellow - how similar to Gilgamesh he is in build,
he is tall in stature, majestic in battlement.
For sure he was born in the hills,
his strength is mighty as a lump of rock from the sky."


"Gilgamesh heard the word of his companion.
He took up his axe in his hand,
he drew forth the dirk from his belt.
Gilgamesh smote him in the neck,
his friend Enkidu gave encouragement.
Humbaba the guardian he smote to the ground,
He slew the ogre, the forest's guardian." >

Mesopotamian Temple Statue from the time of Abraham's Forefathers 2900-2300 BC

< Mesopotamian Temple Statue of a male worshipper was placed in the temple before the god Sin (or, Nanna) the moon god to continually represent the worshipper. This is from the time period of Abraham's forefathers 2900-2300 BC and was excavated in 1933-34 at Khafajah, Iraq. (OIM, Chicago)




Mesopotamian Temple Statue of a female worshipper was placed in the temple before the god Sin (or, Nanna) the moon god to continually represent this woman worshipper. This is from the time period of Abraham's forefathers 2600-2300 BC and was excavated in 1933-34 at Khafajah, Iraq. (OIM, Chicago) >















More personal statues left in Mesopotamian temples
by worshippers of the gods in 2900-2300 BC below:

Mesopotamian Female Worshipper Statue placed in Sin Temple 2600-2300BC
Mesopotamian statues of worshippers 2900-2300 BC Mesopotamian statues of worshippers 2900-2300 BC
Cuneifrom on clay tablet 2046 BC

< Cuneiform script is written left to rightusing a reed stylus to first divide the clay tablet into lines and then to form the letters or cuneiform signs. This clay tablet is from the time of Abraham and is dated to 2046 BC in Iraq. The text is a recording about sheep, lambs and one goat. (OIM, Chicago)






An example of cuneiform script being engraved into stone by a scribe skilled at stonecutting. This is piece of stone contains a dedication inscription which was placed in the foundation of a building around 2094-2047 BC. (OIM, Chicago) >

Cuneiform script on stone 2094-2047 BC
Multiplication Tables on clay cylinder in 13 columns

< From 2004-1595 BC a clay cylinder with multiplication tables arranged in 13 columns forming a table of reciprocals followed by 37 multiplication tables. There is a hole running through the center of this cylinder so that it could be placed on a column to be rotated like a globe on the scribe's desk.




A tablet preserves a list of concise and abstract >
mathematical problems. Each section has the
definition of a principal expression,the result of its
interation and the secondary expression.
One of the sections can be translated with our modern notation:

P = 1/7 x 1/11 x {2,29 + [ length = width + 2 x(length - width) ] }


Babylonian Math 2000-1500 BC

Hammurabi Coe 1760 BC

< Hammurabi Code Fragment from a stele dedicated by a high official of Hammurabi's named Itur-Ashdum to the goddess Ashratum. This is only a fragment of one of the stele, but the goddess's hand can still be seen extending from the right side of this broken stele. This is from 1760-1750 BC. (British Museum)

King Hammurabi (1792-1750) is the carved figure standing to the left of the cuneiform inscription. Hammurabi is facing the goddess Ashratum who is seated and giving Hammurabi the law or this legal code. Hammurabi is receiving the law/code and worshipping the goddess.

Hammurabi Code
Hammurabi Code

Hammurabi Code on a stele (OIM)
dated to 1754 BC

Hammurabi Code

Hammurabi Code

Hammurabi Code

Hammurabi Code

Canaanite Altar Canaanite Temple with Altar in Megiddo built around 2700 BC.
This altar and temple complex was used by the Canaanites in the land of Canaan until about 1900 BC.
Canaanite Temple
Fruit bowl from the time of Abraham, 2000 BC Fruit bowl from the days of Abraham (2000 BC) Lamps from 2350-1000 BC including four spouted
Milk Jug from the time of Abraham, 2000 BC Milk jug from the days of Abraham (2000 BC)  
Neferhotep I pharaoh 1747-1736 BC


Neferhotep I reigned in Egypt 1747-1736 BC. This is a quartzite statue found in Osiris Temple in Abydos, Egypt. Neferhotep is shown wearing the royal dress which included a striped fabric head cover (nemes) which was striped blue and gold. The deity protecting the Pharaoh is the cobra (uraeus) which decorates the forehead and spit fire at Pharaoh's enemies. This is the time right after Joseph's death and may be the pharaoh mentioned in Exodus 1:8 that no longer remembered Joseph and oppression of the Hebrews followed.



Amenemhat III was Pharaoh (1860-1814 BC) while Joseph was still alive in Egypt. Amenemhat III reign was the golden age of the 12th Dynasty in the Middle Kingdom. His father was Sesostris III.


Photos were taken by Galyn Wiemers of
Generation Word Bible Teaching Ministry
of images on location in Israel or
on display in a public library or
from Galyn's personal collection.
Some photographs are images of replicas
(not the original piece). These are identified.

All images may be downloaded, published, uploaded
or freely used for further study and Bible teaching.

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