Isaiah 27

27:1 - Leviathan is a dragon-like creature that is pictured as:
a) gliding swiftly through the air as a spirit being
b) a deadly foe like a coing serpant
c) inhabiting the sea which is known as a place that is uncontrolled by humans

This is a description of Satan and his use of world powers.

Just as in Revelation 12:3, "Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with
seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads. His tail swept a third of the stars out
of the sky and flung them to the earth."

Notice that the dragon, Leviathan is in the "sky" which is the spiritual dominion of Satan
Notice that the dragon or Leviathan has heads. These heads are the world powers that have manifest
Satan's cosmos through time: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, Anti-christ Kingdom

In Psalms 74:14 it says, "It was you who crushed the heads of Leviathan and gave him as food to the
creatures of the desert."

Here Leviathan is seen as having heads also. Or, Satan is pictured as being over the world powers.

In Isaiah 27:1 the first three world powers are mentioned in describing Leviathan:
1) "Leviathan the gliding serpent" refers to the straight, fast Tigris river or Assyria
2) "Leviathan the coiling serpent" refers to the winding, twisting Euphrates river or Babylon
3) "He will slay the monster of the sea" refers to the land of Egypt that is on the Meditterranean Sea.

Revelation 12:9 identifies Satan this way, "The great dragon was hurled down - that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan,
who leads the whole world astray."

These are three of the heads of Leviathan or three of Satan's world powers.

27:1 begins, "In that day. . ." which refers to an eschatological day in the future.

24:1 has already said "In that day the Lord will punish the powers in the heavens above . . ."

27:2 This begins talking about the vineyard.
In Isaiah 5:1-7 the vineyard is introduced as Israel. In Isaiah 5 the vineyard is judged as unproductive.
Here in 27:2-5 the nation of Israel has become "a fruitful vineyard." (literlly "a vineyard of wine")

Through time God has disciplined and corrected Israel until in the end they will achieve the purpose he planned for them.
"watch over it" indicates God is constantly aware of and caring for Israel. "water it continually" is literally "daily rising up
early and sending them".

The watering refers to God sending prophets and teachers to Israel through out time to instruct them and help them grow.

27:4 "I am not angry" refers to the day in their future (after Isaiah's day and after the Roman dispersion) when God's work
of salvation is done and his wrath has passed.

This is mentioned in Isaiah 40:2, "Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and proclaim to her that her hard service has been completed,
that her sin has been paid for, that she has receivd fomr the Lord's hand double for all her sins."

"Briers and thorns" are rebellious Jews in the vineyard. If they were weeds they'd be burned, but if these repent they will be spared.
It is part of God's purifiying the nation and preparing for the fruitful season (millennium) that is coming in verse 6.

27:6 The millennium production. They will bud and fill the whole earth.

27:7 God did not strike Israel like he struck other nations. The nations were destroyed, but Israel is disciplined.

27:8 God used warfare and exile to correct Israel. They are driven out of their land.

27:9 Israel atones (makes ammends, pays restitution) for their sins by this national discipline.
The result is that Israel will become obedient. After the Babylonian captivity Israel never returned to idol worship.
The false altars and Asherah poles were destroyed. When Israel returns from captivity they will have had their minds
changed and destroy everything pagan from their lives.

This was also a command they where to follow when they entered the land:
Exodus 34:13
Dt. 12:2-3

So, their "atoned" sin is more of a discipline that creates in them a new attitude and a correct world view.

When they return from discipline they will have a divine viewpoint.

27:10-11 "the fortified city" is? ? ?
a) the cities of the world (Gentiles) as in other places in chapters 24-27
b) Samaria after the Assyrian dispersion
c) Jerusalem before the Babylonian captivity.

The picture is that of an overrun city that is used by cattle to graze in and the unkept, unpruned trees have dead branches.

Trees of a city are usually pruned and cared for. These city trees are growing wild and unkept.

27:11 Why did this happen to either
a) the cities of the world
b) Samaria
c) Jerusalem

The people did not "understand" or think like God thinks (some would call it faith).
They did not have divine viewpoint (faith).
No divine viewpoint equals or no faith results in:
a) no compassion from God
b) no favor from God Describes the people before the judgment and discipline.

This is why Israel is going to be judged.

27:12 The regathering of Israel to their land

27:13 The regathering of the nations to worship in Jerusalem
Also seen in Isaiah 11:12-16 and 35:1-10

Chapters 7-12 says that if you trust in the nations they will destroy you
Chapters 13-27 says that God will then deliver his people from those nations

Isaiah chapters 28-33
Explains the folly of trusting in the nations

Isaiah lists seven woes in these six chapters:
1) "Woe to that wreath, the pride of Ephraim's drunkards." (28"1)
2) "Woe to you, Ariel, Ariel, the city where David settled!" (29:1)
3) "Woe to those who go to great depths to hide their plans from the Lord." (29:15)
4) "Woe to the obstinate children. . .to those who carry out plans that are not mine." (30:1)
5) "Woe to those who go down to Egypt for help, who rely on horses, who trust in the multitude of their chariots
and in the great strength of their horsemen, but do not look to the Holy One of Israel, or seek help from the Lord." (31:1)
6) "Woe to you, O destroyer, you who have not been destroyed! (33:1)
7) "Woe to you, O traitor, you who have not been betrayed!" (33:1)

28:1-4 Samaria the capital of northern Israel was the glory or wreath of the land. It would be overrun by Assyria

28:5 The Lord would be the glory or the wreath of honor for the believing remnant